I am very concerned if we use your deployment of MySQL with replication for production and the problem recurs. Because in this stat we can't login into the MySQL and create a dump, we can't start the MySQL instance on this VM, we can't check the logs... actually we can't do anything.
The problem looks like sth wrong that happened during the 1st boot of the VMs. Sometimes, there are connectivity or hardware issues that make the initialization of the VM to fail leaving it in a "inconsistent state" like yours, where
/etc/sudoers is not properly configured.
The good thing is that, if everything goes well during that 1st boot, then you shouldn't face issues in the future because this initialization won't be executed anymore when restarting the VMs. The MySQL service will be started instead. So, if you create a new solution, and everything works the 1st time you connect to it (MySQL is running, the credentials are correct, you can stop/start/restart the services, etc.) then you shouldn't worry about this problem to recur.