You're right. Our system doesn't use
/etc/fstab to mount the disks. Instead, it autodiscovers the available disks and mounts the first one it finds. The approach you described should still work, provided you remove the first disk after you've copied everything to the bigger one.
That being said, Azure lets you expand existing disks, which would be the best method to use in this case. You can read about this here.
You should be able to log in into the second node using the same username and password you used for the first node. Keep in mind the second node won't be publicly accessible so you should log in from the first node to the second.
Hope it helps.
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